Food fortification is a process of enriching food material with micronutrients such as vitamins and trace elements, while popular traditional food materials have high sensory appeal. Although, Indian traditional food is also rich in nutrition, however additional nutrition will definitely provide health benefits along with providing a new flavour of existing taste. The fortification may also work as a tool to fight with the nutritional deficiencies too. The fibre rich diets are also becoming a trend for reducing digestion related health issues. The addition of fruit and vegetable pulp in various traditional dishes may also add value in terms of taste, appearance, vitamins, phenolic compounds and dietary fibre. The incorporation of nutritional components in the daily diets may serve as an effective way for health security of the population. (Alina et al., 2019).

The main goal of the present article is to present an approach to food fortification as one of the promising food products that can be daily consumed, which may increase the utilization of these nutritional products and add to their diversification in the market. Fortification is already proven to work towards reduction of health issues by eliminating the deficiencies in the nutrition. The basic traditional foods are undergoing modification by adding the desired nutrition depending upon the chemical constituents of the food. The shorter shelf life of traditional foods remains a limiting factor, which needs to be tackled for development of processed products. Dehydration removes moisture from the food material and makes the food safe for a longer period. Therefore, standardized novel technology is required to make traditional food processable for food processing industries.

Khaman is the staple food of Gujarat, which is prepared from gram flour and subsequently steamed. The steaming process is attributed to lesser oil content, thus preserving majority of the nutrients. This soft and spongy popular Gujarati snack is used as a starter prior to the main course, tea-time snack or even for breakfast. This is one of the most popular dishes which is being consumed at all times during the day. It has a great number of followers from all over the world. One piece of khaman provides 81  per piece, which contributes about 4% of the daily energy requirement of a standard adult. Nutritional values of khaman are shown in Table 1.

Table 1 Nutritional Values of Khaman
Table 1: Nutritional values of khaman (Anon., 2021a)

Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) is mostly consumed as a fresh fruit globally. The consumption pattern of tomato varies from drinks, salads, sauces, apart from being consumed as a main ingredient in vegetables or side dishes. A number of varieties are grown across the globe and greenhouse technology has boosted the production of tomatoes. The leading tomato producing countries are China, India, USA and Turkey. India ranks second with a production of 19.0 million tonnes during the year 2019 (Table 2).


Table 2: Tomato production during 2019 (Anon., 2021b)
Table 2: Tomato production during 2019 (Anon., 2021b)

The tomato has huge commercial importance, but observes about 20 to 50% loss, due to its highly perishable nature. It contains about 93 – 95% water and remains low in calories. It is very rich in vitamins (A, C and E) and various minerals viz. calcium, phosphorus and potassium (Anon., 2018). Nutritive value and health benefits of tomatoes are shown in figure 1 (Ali et al., 2021). The addition of tomato in various value added fortified products paves the way for effective utilization of tomatoes in peak production.

Fig 1: Summary of Nutritive value & health benefits of Tomato
Fig 1: Summary of Nutritive value & health benefits of Tomato

Process technology for Tomato Khaman

1. Good quality tomatoes are selected and washed in running tap water. The tomatoes are cut into small pieces. The cut pieces are grinded in domestic / commercial grinder cum mixer for making tomato pulp. The pulp is strained and kept aside for making khaman.

2. About 1 to 2 tbsp sooji and 100 g besan is added in one bowl.

3. Citric acid (3 – 5 g), 10 ml oil and sugar (5 – 10 g) are mixed in another bowl thoroughly. All these materials are added with 15 ml of water and kept for 15 minutes.

4. After 15 minutes, mix the contents of both the bowls. Add strained tomato pulp (50 to 150 ml) and salt as per taste and mix well using a whisk to get a smooth batter. Water may be added, if needed.

5. Sodium bicarbonate (3 – 5 g) is added just before the steaming and continuously beating in one direction. Pour the mixture immediately to a greased mold and spread evenly by rotating in one direction.

6. Steaming is done for 10 to 12 minutes or till the khaman are cooked. Now it is kept aside.

7. Small quantity of oil is heated in small non-stick pan for drying mustard seeds and curry leaves. The water is added after crackling of seeds and sugar is added in the tempering mixture and is kept on boiling for 3 – 4 minutes.

8. The khaman is cut into medium pieces and tempering mixture is poured over it evenly. It is kept for 5 minutes till the mixture is completely absorbed.

9. Garnishing may be done with cut coriander leaves.

Flow chart for preparation of Tomato Khaman
Fig 2: Flow chart for preparation of Tomato Khaman

Benefits of tomato khaman as compared to traditional khaman

The incorporation of tomato in khaman enhances the nutritional and sensory characteristics of khaman made with sooji and besan. Fortification also affects the colour of khaman, with the amount of tomato pulp being proportional to redness. The incorporation of tomato pulp increases the Acidity, Vitamin C, Carbohydrate, Protein, ash content, phenolic and flavonoid content of khaman. Antioxidant activity is also increased following tomato pulp incorporation (Ray et al., 2017). Traditional khaman and tomato khaman are shown in Figure 3.

Fig 3: Traditional khaman and Tomato khaman
Fig 3: Traditional khaman and Tomato khaman

Market value of fortification in Khaman

The popularity of khaman is well known and health consciousness is increasing day by day, which makes this product promising. The cost of Khaman is also affordable and suits everyone’s pocket. The value addition of Besan (chickpea flour) @Rs. 100 per kg to the retail price of developed Khaman @Rs. 200 per kg also brings enough scope for a decent profit margin in production of these products. As per an assumption made for daily sale of 10,000 kg of the product, a sale worth Rs. 20 lakh per day can be estimated (Anon., 2021c).

Conclusions and Future Trends

The process for making these types of products is very simple and these can suitably be employed in commercial production. Fortified products can double the nutritional value. Developing such value-added products deliver higher nutritional benefits. It can also serve to increase nutritional products utilization and add to diversification in the market.

Fresh khamans are highly perishable and could get spoiled within 24 hours of preparation. Drying is one of the most commonly used method for the preservation of foods since antiquity, as it deals with the removal of moisture to resist the microbial spoilage and other deteriorative reactions and extends the shelf life of stored food. High quality dried food with better rehydration properties are gaining huge demand worldwide over the recent years. The tomato khaman can be dehydrated for enhancing the shelf life and it has enough potential to be converted in ready-to-reconstitute (Just needs to add boiled/ warm water in dehydrated food for 5-7 minutes to regain its original consistency, texture and taste) or convenience food in future. There is no need to have special refrigeration conditions for storage of dehydrated products, due to lower water activity. These dehydrated products can be easily stored for 6 to 9 months at ambient temperature. These products will also suit today’s lifestyle by making the food available anytime and anywhere. These products can remain as a source of nutrition even during extreme climate conditions viz. highly hill terrain, air travel, etc.


Currently, our Department is working on the development of technology for ready-to-reconstitute traditional as well as tomato khaman, followed by effects of different packaging materials and packaging condition on shelf life of ready-to-reconstitute traditional and tomato khaman during storage. We are in the process of developing standard protocols through optimization techniques and will soon be able deliver the technology for commercialization.

For further details, contact the Corresponding Author at


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Khalil, M. I. & Gan, S. H. (2021). Nutritional composition and bioactive
compounds in tomatoes and their impact on human health and disease: A
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2. Alina, V. R., Carmen, M. C., Sevastiţa, M., Andruţa, M., Vlad, M., Ramona, S.,
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3. Anonymous (2018). Horticultural Statistics at a Glance 2018,
Ministry of Agriculture and Farmers Welfare Department of Agriculture,
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4. Anonymous (2021a). Nutritional Facts of Naylon Khaman.
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7. Ray, S., Saha, R., Raychaudhuri, U & Chakraborty, R. (2017).
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About the Authors:
Er. Ulpa Patel1. Er. Ulpa Patel
Research Scholar
Department of Processing and Food Engineering,
College of Agricultural Engineering and Technology,
Anand Agricultural University, Godhra, Gujarat, India.



Dr. Navneet Kumar2. Dr. Navneet Kumar*
Associate Professor & Head,
Department of Processing and Food Engineering,
College of Agricultural Engineering and Technology,
Anand Agricultural University, Godhra, Gujarat, India.
* Corresponding Author Email ID:


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